Dr. Motohisa Kanda, Commission Chairman
This triennium report was prepared by Dr. M. Kanda. We, Commission Members, would like to thank Dr. Kanda for his great efforts in organizing this report and also for his dedication to Commission A activity.
The chair-persons of the Commission A during this triennium were: Chairman: Dr. M. Kanda, USA, Vice-Chairman:Professor E. Bava, Italy.
2. Commission A Sponsored Meetings
Budget 1996-1999: 360,000 Belgian francs
|Code||details meeting||Mode||Amount of sponsorship in USD||Amount of sponsorship in Belgian francs||ICSU $ rate||date transfer|
|970512AB||ISEM, Int. Symp. on Non-Linear EM Systems, Braunschweig, Germany, 12-14 May 1997||B||$3,000||= BEF 96,000||US$ 1 = BEF 32.00||30 Jan >97|
|980310A||12 European Frequency and Time Forum, Warsaw, Poland, 10-12 March 1998||A||$0||=BEF 0|
|980623EA||EMC Conference, Wroclaw, Poland, 23-26 June, 1998||B||$2,500||=BEF 87,000||US$ 1 =BEF 34.80||2 Jul >97|
|980706A||CPEM >98 Conference Prcision Electromagnetic Measurements, Washington, DC, USA, 6-10 July 1998||B||$1,000||=BEF 35,000||US$ 1 =BEF 36.40||17 Dec >97|
|980713AFK||PIERS >98, Nantes, France, 13-17 July 1998||A||$0||= BEF 0|
|980914EAK||EMC >98 Roma, Rome, Italy, 14-18 September 1998||B||$ 2,000||= BEF 71,000||US$ 1 = BEF 37.60||13 Feb >98|
|990216EA||EMC >99 Zurich, Switzerland, 16-18 February 1999||B||= BEF 71,000||Fixed in BEF||in progress|
Total: = BEF 360,000 ; Balance: = BEF 0 ; Budget (fixed in Belgian Francs): = BEF 360,000
3. Review of Radio Science ------- M. DAmore
Commission A: Electromagnetic Metrology edited by Marcello D'Amore
Chapter 1. Broadband Electromagnetic-Field Sensors with Optoelectronic Links by Keith D. Masterson, Motohisa Kanda, and David R. Novotny
1. Introduction...3 2. System concept and analysis...4 3. Antennas 4. Modulators...10 5. Detectors and lasers...20 6. Conclusions...22 7. References...23
Chapter 2. Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT): Principle, Implementation, and Current Performance by D. Kirchner
1. Abstract...27 2. Introduction...27 3. Principle...28 4. System elements...33 5. Operational links and planned links...37 6. Current performance...38 7. Concluding remarks...40 8. Acknowledgments...40 9.References...41
Chapter 3. A Study of the Influence of AC-Mains Impedance and Frequency-Domain EMI Evaluation Methods on EMI Measurements by Shuichi Nitta and Atsuo Mutoh
1. Abstract...45 2. Introduction...45 3. The influence of the LISN and 50 -input-impedance instruments......47 4. The influence of AC-mains impedance on radiated-emission measurement......59 5. Introduction of a VHF/UHF LISN......67 6. The relationship between the EMI evaluation method and the poor reproducibility of measured results......71 7. Future issues...77 8. References...77
4. Disk of Collected references, 1997 1999 ------- S. Cellozi
References on arguments of interest for Commission A have been collected through National Commission A Chairs. They have been contacted in 1997 through e-mail, fax or surface mail, in order to submitt the disk of collected references. I have also suplemented this by adding references published mainly in IEEE and IEE Journals. I finally submitted the desk of 238 references which were mainly from 14 National Commission A Chairs.
5. Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM'96 (17 - 20 June 1996 in Braunschweig, Germany). ------- U. Stumper
The Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM'96, took place in the Civic Hall of Braunschweig, Germany, from 17 June to 20 June 1996. This Conference which is permanently sponsored by URSI has acquired an outstanding reputation over more than three decades as an international forum for precision electromagnetic measurements. It is held every two years, either in the USA (or Canada) or in a country outside North America. Besides the URSI, other permanent sponsors of the CPEM are the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA, and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada. The Commission A Chairman is a member of the CPEM Executive Committee. Traditionally, the Conference is organized mainly by members of the hosting national institute of metrology, but individual members of URSI are involved to a considerable extent. The CPEM was held in Braunschweig for the second time, after 1980, and again was organized by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig. The Conference Chairman was Professor Volkmar Kose, Vice President of the PTB.
The number of attendants has considerably increased from about 470 at the CPEM´94 to about 600 scientists from 42 countries, who participated in the Conference this year. An increasing interest of companies and national calibration services in precision electromagnetic metrology was also observed. In 26 oral and 28 poster sessions, about 350 papers and posters were presented, among these 16 invited talks. One oral session was dedicated to post-deadline papers. The authors of the² best poster of the day² were honoured with a prize. In an extended Young Scientists Program, a financial contribution to the travel expenses was given to 23 young scientists from 13 different countries. Candidates to be included in this program were suggested by the members of the CPEM Honorary Committee, and the final selection was made by a commission of members of the CPEM Technical Program Committee. An additional financial contribution by various institutions allowed financial aid to be given to another 60 participants from developing countries and East European states.
The Conference opened with three plenary papers held by outstanding scientists who introduced three of the essential topics of CPEM´96: Nobel Laureate Klaus von Klitzing, Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany, gave an overview of new developments in the field of the Quantum Hall Effect (QHE). It was at CPEM 1980 in Braunschweig, that he gave his very first report on this effect before an international audience, for the discovery of which he was later awarded. In the two other lectures, Konstantin Likharev, State University of New York, Stony Brook, USA, reported on electronic devices in the nanometer range, the characteristics of which are determined by single electrons, and Herbert Walther, Max-Planck-Institut Garching, Germany, reported on the quantum optics of single atoms. Following the Plenary Session, Richard Deslattes, Klaus von Klitzing, Volkmar Kose, Konstantin Likharev, and Barry Taylor were appointed Honorary Members of the Academy of Metrology of Russia by Professor Yuri Tarbeyev, Director of the Mendeleyev Institute of Metrology (VNIIM), St. Petersburg.
Compared with the 1994 Conference, the number of submitted papers on frequency standards and electric quantum standards has considerably increased. Many of these sessions were dedicated to topics such as cesium beam and optical frequency standards and metrology, and time keeping and distribution, as well as to the different aspects of quantum metrology and fundamental constants. In the field of frequency standards, new fountain geometries and mechanisms of excitations are being developed and investigated, which will allow the uncertainty of Cs clocks to be reduced. On the other hand, novel optical frequency standards are developed on the basis of laser-cooled atoms and ions. As radiation sources for these standards, lasers are used which are based on new technologies such as laser diodes or solid-state lasers pumped by laser diodes and whose efficiency is considerably larger although their dimensions are small. It was reported that, for the first time, the frequency of the radiation of an optical Ca frequency standard could be successfully traced back to the frequency of the primary frequency standard (i.e. the Cs atomic clock) with coherent phase, thus reducing the uncertainty of the realization of the unit of length by a factor of 25.
Among the highlights in the field of electrical metrology were reports of the National Metrological Laboratory (NML) in Lindfield, Australia, and of the NIST, USA, on new determinations of the von Klitzing constant. T. Kinoshita, Cornell University, USA, presented a corrected value for the fine structure constant, which has been obtained, using quantum electrodynamics methods, from the experimentally determined anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. J. Martinis, NIST, Boulder, USA, reported on the development of an electron pump using the single electron tunneling effect (SET ) and consisting of seven SET elements by which the charge of a capacitor is determined by counting the electrons with a relative uncertainty of 10-7. In several sessions, a large number of papers covering DC and AC measurements, magnetic measurements, power, energy and high voltage measurements and SQUIDS were presented. Several groups reported on precision AC measurements of the QHE. About 20 papers dealt with AC-DC transfer. As a further step towards a more accurate value for the Avogadro constant, the molar mass of a silicon single crystal could be precisely determined by prompt (n,g )-spectrometry. The CPEM´96 included for the first time sessions on novel sensors and automated measurement methods and their applications in precision metrology. In these sessions, too, all papers were well received, followed by extensive discussions which indicated the significance of the topics chosen. In the field of RF measurements, 61 papers were presented in five oral and five poster sessions, which covered topics such as microwave and millimeter wave metrology, power and noise metrology, network analysis and antennas and EMC, including an invited talk by K. H. Gonschorek, Dresden Technical University, on modern computer tools for EMC analysis. There were two very informative reports on RF power standards in the Eastern European countries. Among the highlights were an invited paper on the development of RSFQ shift registers of 8 bit length for applications in RF noise metrology, which will operate at a clock frequency of about 70 GHz, and a paper describing a novel thin-film barretter in 3,5 mm coaxial technique serving as a broad-band RF power standard for frequencies up to 26,5 GHz with high efficient efficiency and low reflection. Two sessions on material measurements also aroused lively interest; these sessions also included several papers on permittivity measurements at high temperatures. Concurrently with the Conference, a very well-attended exhibition was held by more than 20 firms from the USA, the UK, Japan and Germany presenting precision measuring instruments.
6. Conference on Precision Electromasgnetic Measurements, CPEM 98 ------- M. Kanda
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) hosted the 1998 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM>98) in the Washington Renaissance Hotel, Washington, DC, the week of July 6-10, 1998. In it, 506 metrologists, physicists, and engineers from National Measurement Institutes, industry, and universities around the world discussed the latest advances in standards, instrumentation, measurement techniques, and practice with the ultimate objective of providing a more uniform international measurement system through the advancement of metrology and physics.
The conference covered the entire spectrum of electromagnetic measurements from dc to light in 310 talks, with the two largest technical fields being time and frequency and dc low frequency. The conference was opened by then-NIST Acting Director, Dr. Robert E. Hebner, who welcomed the participants on behalf of the Institute and its Electronics and Electrical Engineering, and Physics Laboratories. The keynote speaker, Prof. Daniel Kleppner of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, kicked the program off with a talk on the evolution of quantitative experimentation in physics and the consequent increasing importance of uncertainties and their determination.
Kleppner was the first in a slate of outstanding plenary speakers, including:
Thanks to our sponsors, the conference was able to support 11 young scientists from around the world. Under this program, the conference invites promising young scientists to present their work to the world metrology community with the hope that they will become its future citizens and leaders. The winners were:
The CPEM Executive Committee met during the week to discuss plans for the next two conferences and decide the venues for the following two. We urge you to participate in CPEM 2000 in Sydney, Australia, hosted by the CSIRO National Measurement Laboratory (seehttp://www.tourhosts.com.au/cpem2000); CPEM >02 in Ottawa, Ont., Canada, hosted by the NRC Institute for National Measurement Standards; CPEM >04 in London, U.K., hosted by the National Physical Laboratory; and CPEM >06 in Forino, Italy, hosted by the Politecnico di Torino, Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Gaileo Ferraris, and Istituto di Metrologia AGustavo Colonnetti.@ We want to express my gratitude to the members of the Conference Organizing Committee and the Technical Program Committee for their efforts in putting on a successful conference, and to Courtesy Associates, who provided all the administrative and logistics support for the Conference and a great deal of much-needed advice to the organizers. Thanks also to our sponsors for making our AYoung Scientists Program@ possible and to our exhibitors.
Finally, we want to thank the speakers and authors whose talks and papers made the CPEM98 such a success!
CPEM 98 Sponsors:
Permanent CEPM Sponsors:
7. THE 14th MEETING OF THE CCTF ( CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE ON TIME AND FREQUENCY), BIPM, SEVRES, 20-22 APRIL, 1999 ------- J. Steele
The previous Consultative Committee for the Definition of the Second met for the first time under its new style and with a new chairman, Professor Sigfrido Leschiutta, President, IEN, Italy and a past chairman of Commission A. The meeting attracted the largest recorded attendance, with 48 representatives from metrological establishments world-wide together with three scientific unions, IAU, IUGG and URSI. A total of seven Recommendations were agreed, three (S1-3) addressed to primary frequency standards and their operation and the remainder (S4-7) to methods of satellite time and frequency comparison. An additional output was a circular letter from the Director, BIPM, emphasising the utility of TAI, as opposed to UTC, for systems requiring uniform time, i.e. free from the discontinuities arising from the application of leap seconds.
At a meeting of the Consultative Committee for Time and frequency (CCTF) held here in April 1999, attention was drawn to potential problems that might arise if a number of new, independent, uniform atomic time scales were developed for satellite navigation and electronic communication systems. There is apparently a perceived need for such uniform time scales to avoid problems in navigation systems resulting from discontinuities in UTC produced by the periodic introduction of leap seconds.
There was no consensus within the CCTF for any proposal to change the definition of UTC. Instead, I was asked as Director of the BIPM to draw your attention and that of agencies developing satellite navigation systems, to the option of using TAI which is, of course an international uniform time scale. I remind you of the ITU Recommendation ITU-R 485-2 (1974-1982-1990) in which it is recommended thatAtime data should be issued wherever possible either with reference to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or to International Atomic Time (TAI)@. It is clear that if the leap seconds of UTC cause problems in any particular application, the preferred alternative is TAI.
The CCTF recommends, therefore, that in conformity with this ITU Recommendation developers of future satellite navigation systems and electronic communication systems should link their time scales to TAI as the only alternative to UTC and that, insofar as it is feasible, existing systems take steps to align their time scales with TAI. This is in conformity with the CCDS Recommendation S4 (1996) on theAcoordination of satellite systems providing timing@, in which it was recommended that Athe reference times (modulo 1 second) of satellite navigation systems with global coverage by synchronized as closely as possible to UTC@. To facilitate the direct use of TAI for satellite navigation systems, the time community is willing to take any steps that are necessary to make TAI easily accessible to users. UTC remains the basis for worldwide timekeeping, but TAI is recommended for those applications requiring uniform time. I urge you to take the necessary steps to inform your constituents of the characteristics of both UTC and TAI so that appropriate use may be made if these international scales. I enclose a few documents that may be of help in this respect.
At its recent meeting, the CCTF also considered the question of terrestrial reference frames. It recalled that the above-mentioned Recommendation $4 (1996) states thatAthe reference frames for these [satellite navigation] systems be transformed to be in conformity with the terrestrial reference frame maintained by the International Earth rotation Service (ITRF)@. Considering the increasing requirements expected for the accuracy of time transfer techniques in view of the present and future progresses of atomic clocks, as well as those expected for navigation and positioning, the CCTF expressed the opinion that it is of utmost importance that satellite systems plan to use a well-defined terrestrial reference system, such as the one realized by the ITRF.
The development of primary standards in the form of cesium fountains in a number of laboratories has propelled the uncertainties in the realization of the second to the level of about 10-15. Consequently, it has been necessary to develop a mise en practique (S1) for the application of the increasingly important small perturbations in these standards. Equally, the statements of uncertainty become critical at this level and procedures are recommended (S2, S3) for stricter accountability in assessing and comparing primary standards. The formation of TAI in entirely dependent on satellite time transfer and S4 extends the range of international coordination by the use of combined GPS and GLONASS receivers. S5 encourages cooperation with the IGS (International GPS Service) in achieving precise time transfer using both code and phase measurement while S6 recognises the importance for future global navigation systems in designing a format so that the signals are available for T/F comparisons and also adhere to UTC or TAI. Finally, S7 encourages the continued development of two-way satellite time transfer which is now fully operational and offers an independent alternative to the GPS/GLONASS common-view technique.
8. Technical Activities in Time and Frequency Metrology, 1996 1998 ------- E. Bava.
Studies and experiments on the Cs-fountain clock in Paris have been carried out with a better understanding of the standard and with an the experimental evaluation of the most important frequency shifts. At the moment the frequency accuracy is estimated at the level of 10-15. In the meantime in many laboratories the development of this standard has started and in one laboratory experiments have been carried out on a Rb fountain . Other microwave standards based on cold Cs atoms are also under develpment looking at experiments in microgravity conditions or in continuous operation as an alternative to the pulsed fountain clock. In the more traditional area of thermal atomic beams efforts have been performed on laboratory optically-pumped standards, increasing accuracy through a better evaluation of Doppler and microwave-power effects. In a high-C field standard improvements in the magnetic field homogeneity have been obtained to the 10-5 leve, not too far from the project goal. Moreover an interesting device based on coherent populòation trapping of Cs or Rb atoms has been studied and is under development: a reduced light-shift has been obtained and an excellent short-term stability is expected.
Trapped ion frequency standards have offered new developments and results both in the microwave (Hg+ cooled) and in the optical region (Hg+, Sr+ single, Yb+ single). Moreover the cooled Ca atom beam standard has reached an accuracy level of 2.5 10-13 . These reserch activity have also promoted the development of phase-coherent frequency chains to perform frequency mesurements on these standards; parametric oscillators and comb generators are relatively new devices used to this purpose.
The acetilene frequency standardat 1.5m m, an interesting device for fiber optic communications, has been improved and new frequency measurements against the two-photon Rb standard have been carried out. Efforts towards a 1.5 m m standard exploiting an Er-Yb:glass laser have been started.
The list of recommended frequencies for the realization of the meter has been updated in 1997 and now includes twelve frequency references (H, Ca, Sr+, Rb, CH4, OsO4 and many I2 absorptions). Stabilized lasers have been developed and compared aiming at improving their stability and to ascertain reproducibility; most of the work has been concentrated on I2 at 532 nm, but experiments have been carried out also on other I2 transitions at 633 nm, 612 nm, 605 nm and 543 nm.
Cryogenic resonators made of saffire or ULE material to stabilize sourses for high-spectral-purity microwave and optical signals have been developed and experimentally tested showing interesting short-term and medium-term stability characteristics.
As regards frequency and time comparisons, experimental activities mainly on the two-way methods led to the introduction of this method on the time scale formations, both at national and international stage. Moreover earth station errors due to the environment and to modulation/demodulation scheme have been investigated. A novel method of time synchronisation using laser and space techniques using the japanese Ajisai satellite fitted with retroreflectors and lasers has been studied. The INSAT satellite has been used for accurate time synchronization and frequency calibration in India. Residual errors of 1m s are achieved with a differential method.
9. International Symposium on Non-Linear Electromagnetic Systems (ISEM) ------- U. Stumper
The 8th International Symposium on Non-Linear Electromagnetic Systems (ISEM Braunschweig) was held in the Civic Hall, Braunschweig, Germany, 12 to 14 May 1997. The Symposium was the eighth of the ISEM series organized to cover the inter-disciplinary field of research and applied electromagnetics. Previous ISEMs were
held in Japan, Korea and the United Kingdom. The objective of ISEM Braunschweig was to exchange information on various topics as: - Advanced Mathematical Methods, Computational Techniques - Material Properties and their Modelling - Microelectromechanics - Inverse Problems - Design of Magnetic Devices - Biomagnetism and Biomagnetic Applications - Non-destructive Testing and other topics of interdisciplinary interest. ISEM Braunschweig covered the present state of the art in these fields and offered the participants the bonus of its interdisciplinary character. Over 260 papers were presented in oral and poster sessions. The program included 22 oral presentations, eleven of which were invited talks, and four tutorial lectures. There were 240 poster contributions presented in six poster sessions. The conference was attended by 261 participants from 27 countries. Financial support was granted to 22 young scientists in an extended Young Scientists Program partly sponsored by URSI, Commission A, where the final selection was made by a commission of members of the Technical Program Committee. In order to give an opportunity for attending the conference to participants who would otherwise have been unable to participate, 35 additional students and 77 attendants from Middle and East European countries have been substituted.
10. International Zurich Symposium and Technical Exhibition on Electromagnetic Compatibility ------- G. Meyer
EMC Zurich '97, the 12th International Zurich Symposium and Technical Exhibition on Electromagnetic Compatibility was held from February 18 to 20, 1997 and EMC Zurich '99 from February 16 to 18, 1999 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland. The 1997 event was attended by 1029 participants from 38 countries and the 1999 event by 997 paticipants from 40 countries, respectively. At EMC Zurich '97, a total of 126 carefully selected technical papers were presented in 18 sessions devoted to: standards, component and subcircuit EMC, lightning and its effects (part I and II), electrostatic discharge, system EMC and radio communications, EMC instrumentation and measurement, shielding, numerical modeling for EMC, test facilities, EMC education, coupling and transmission lines, emission and immunity testing, low frequencies and power systems, circuit oriented techniques in EMC, surges and transients, EM field standards and sensors as well as modeling. For EMC Zurich '99 a total of 129 papers have been presented in the following 18 >sessions: protection and mitigation, EMC management, bio-electromagnetic interactions, ESD and fast transients, EMC in extended systems I and II, antenna calibration for EMC testing, transients, board and chip-level EMC I and II, measurements technology I and II, power system EMC, numerical methods, transmission lines, EMC innovation, lightning physics and effects as well as EMC test chambers. As in previous symposia the program did not exclusively address experts. An introduction to EMC technology for newcomers is always offered by tutorial lectures and workshops. A number of international and national professional organizations were cooperating, e.g. ITU, IEEE and URSI. With the support of the URSI Young Scientists Program it was possible to invite four researchers from Belarus, Russia and India for EMC Zurich '97. URSI Support from Commission A and E was given in 1999 to four young scientists from Croatia, Russia and Turkey.
11. EMC'96 ROMA - International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, September 17-20, 1996, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy ------- M. DAmore
The Second International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC'96 ROMA) was held at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy, September 17- 20, 1996. The Symposium was organized by the University of Rome "L Sapienza" and Associazione Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica Italiana (AEI), sponsored by URSI- International Union of Radio Science, CNR - National Research Council, Italferr-Sis. T.A.V., and cooperated by IEEE North Italy Section and IEEE Central and
South Italy Section. The International Steering Committee (ISC) was composed by M. D'Amore, Chairman, (Italy), P. Bernardi, Vice-chairman, (Italy), M. Feliziani, Secretariat, (Italy), N.G. Alexopoulos (USA), F.G. Canavero (Italy), J. Catrysse (Belgium), C. Christopoulos (UK), P. Corona (Italy), G. Costache ( Canada), J. Cristina (Italy), V. Daniele (Italy), P. Degauque (France), R. De Leo (Italy), K. Feser (Germany), J.L. ter Haseborg (Germany), M. Ianoz (Switzerland), B. Jecko (France), A.C. Marvin (UK), C. Mazzetti (Italy), E. Nano (Italy), R.G. Olsen (USA), J.C. Sabonnadiere (France), R. Sato (Japan), V. Scuka (Sweden), F.M. Tesche (USA), P.C.T. van der Laan (NL). The Editorial Board was composed by all the members of the ISC and by B. Audone (Italy), C. Baum (USA), D.J. Bem (Poland), S. Caniggia (Italy), A. Ciccolella (NL), V. Cooray (Sweden), R. Cortina (Italy), J.F. Dawson (UK), J.L. Drewniak (USA), B. Demoulin (France), G.
D'Inzeo (USA), P. Excell (UK), R. Feuillet (France), Z. Flisowski (Poland), O.P. Gandhi (USA), C.J. Georgopoulos (Greece), J.J. Goedbloed (NL), K.-H. Gonschorek (Germany), R. Graglia (Italy), C.L. Holloway (USA), M. Kanda (USA), J.C. Lin (USA), C.A. Marshman (UK), S. Maruvada (Canada), L. Millanta (Italy), I. Novak (Hungary), C.A. Nucci (Italy) C.R. Paul (USA), F. Rachidi (Switzerland), J. Roudet (France), T. Rozzi (Italy), D. Serafin (France), H. Singer (Germany), M.A. Stuchly (USA), R. Thottappillil (Sweden), P.L.E. Uslenghi (USA), E. F. Vance (USA).
More than 250 summary papers have been submitted for presentation to EMC'96 ROMA Symposium by authors of 35 different countries. Each summary has been reviewed by three members of the Editorial
Board, experts in the subject of the paper and with a different nationality from that of the authors. Each main author then received a copy of the anonymous Paper Review Forms completed by the referees.
A meeting of the ISC was held in Rome on February 29 - March 1, 1994, to complete the review process and define the technical programme composed by three-day oral and poster presentations plus workshops and tutorials. In the final programme 178 technical paper presentations have been scheduled, 108 presentations in oral sessions including 2 invited papers and 70 presentations in poster sessions. The maximum six-page, double-column papers have been published on the two-volume, 894 page Symposium Proceedings. The Wokshops and Tutorial notes have been published in two separate volumes. In order to promote a wide participation, only two parallel oral sessions have been scheduled in the technical programme. The oral presentations have been subdivided in 18 oral sessions on the following EMC subjects: EMC Measurements - Transmission Lines - Human Exposure to EM Fields - Immunity/Emission - Communications Systems - Shielding Modelling - Protection Devices - EMC Standards - Numerical Modelling - Field Probes - Cables - Shielding Measurements/ESD - PCBs I - PCBs II - Railway Systems/Power Electronics - Lightning - Power Systems - Rooms & Cells. The final programme has included the invited opening session "EMC Aspects related to the European Standards on Human Exposure to EM Fields with the participation of B. Kunsch, Chairman of CENELEC TC211. The poster presentations have been scheduled in the afternoon without overlapping with the oral sessions and have been subdivided in the following 10 poster sessions: EMI in Power Apparatus and Systems - Harmonics & Power Electronics - EMC Education - Antennas & Communication Systems - Electronic Devices - Biological Interactions - Measurements & Instrumentation - Lightning and EMP - EM Coupling/Transients - Computational Electromagnetics.
In order to encourage discussion and participation during the sessions, Oral Presentation Best Paper and Poster Presentation Best Paper awards of ITL 1.000.000 have been established. The best papers have been selected during the symposium by the ISC members and the session chairmen on the basis of content, presentation and discussion of the paper. The Oral Presentation Best Paper award was given ex-aequo to the paper "Electromagnetic field coupling to shielded cables: methodology and approximations" by D.Orzan, M.Ianoz, F. Rachidi, (EPFL, Switzerland), and B. Nicoara (Polytechnic of Bucarest, Romania), and to the paper "Interconnect Model for Commercial Simulators" by I. Maio, F.G. Canavero, (Polytechnic of Turin, Italy) F. Muzio, B. Dilecce (Centro Ricerca FIAT, Italy) . The paper "The influence of finite ground conductivity on characteristics of a vertical mast (monopole) antenna with elevated feeding", by P.D. Rancic, J.V. Surutka e M.I Kitanovic (University of Nis, Yugoslavia) won the award for Poster Presentation Best Paper
In the Symposium six workshops and four half-day tutorials took place. The six workshops have debated the hot topics listed in the following:
The four tutorials were taken on the following relevant EMC topics:
The Symposium has been accompanied by a technical exhibition related to EMC; 21 exhibitors have been registered. The Technical Visit was to the satellite and antenna test facilities of Alenia. All the activities related to the symposium have taken place around the antique cloister inside the Faculty building, which is located very close to the Colosseum and the archeological areas of Rome. Social Programme has included a welcome cocktail at the Villa Giulia and Etruscan Museum and a banquet at the Villa Miani. Interesting tours have been also organized to visit some well known, tourist areas of the city (St. Peter and Vatican Museums, Roman Forum, christian basilicas and catacombs).
The technical programme has been appreciated by the participants if considering the relevant number of attendees (more than 500 people) at all oral and poster sessions. Particularly the poster sessions have been a success for the friendly atmosphere which has encouraged informal discussions among the participants.
12. International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, E M C ' 98 Roma, September 14-18, 1998, University of Rome "La Sapienza" Rome, Italy ------- M. DAmore
EMC '98 Roma, the third International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility organized by the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and AEI "Associazione Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica Italiana", took place at theFaculty of Engineering, University of Rome "La Sapienza", from 14 to 18 September 1998.
The International Steering Committee was composed as follows: Chairman M. D'Amore, Italy; Vice-Chairman P. Bernardi, Italy; Secretary M. Feliziani, Italy; Members D.J. Bem, Poland, F.G. Canavero, Italy, J.Catrysse, Belgium, C. Christopoulos, United Kingdom, P. Corona, Italy, R. Cortina, Italy, V. Daniele, Italy, P.Degauque, France, R. De Leo, Italy, G. Dragan, Romania, K. Feser, Germany, J.J. Gavan, Israel, M. Hayakawa, Japan, M. Ianoz, Switzerland,, B. Jecko, France, M. Kanda, USA, P.S. Maruvada, Canada, A.C. Marvin, United Kingdom, C. Mazzetti, Italy, R.G. Olesn USA, C.R. Paul, USA, J.C. Sabonnadière, France, R. Sato, Japan, V. Scuka, Sweden, J.L. ter Haseborg, Germany, F.M. Tesche, USA, P.C.T. van der Laan, The Netherlands, Y.B. Zubarev, Russia.
224 summaries were submitted to EMC '98 ROMA by authors coming from 40 different Countries. All the contributions, consisting of a wide abstract of the paper, were selected by three reviewers of different nationality from authors and experts in the specific field of the proposed summary. The review result with relevant documentation was sent to the authors. The 174 papers accepted were subdivided into oral and poster sessions respectively. The EMC '98 ROMA final programme was composed of 16 oral sessions, 10 poster sessions, 7 workshops, 4 tutorials, 4 panel sessions, an Erasmus course.
The oral and poster sessions dealt with aspects on electromagnetic compatibility in the following fields: measurements and instrumentations, transmission lines, human exposure to EM fields, radiated emission, telecommunication sytems, numerical modelling, field sensors, electrostatic discharges, cables, regulations, printed circuits design, power electronic systems, absorption and compound materials, railway systems, , anechoic chambers and TEM cells, , EMC education and management .Two awards of one Million It.lire each were assigned to the best papers selected by the International Steering Committee and proposed for the oral and poster sessions respectively.
The best contributions were:
The event opened with the greetings of the academic authorities of the University La Sapienza - Rome, and AEI Associazione Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica Italiana. The new trends in reserach and industrial activities in EMC were discussed during the plenary session.
The programme of the symposium also included 7 workshops on the following items:
4 Tutorial sessions were held with the attendance of researchers and eminent experts :
4 Panel sessions on topical subjects closed the technical programme:
More than fifty students from European Universities attended the three-days Erasmus course. Four URSI awards were assigned to young researchers. A technical exhibition with 16 domestic and overseas companies and a technical visit to CRAV (Regional Centre of Assistance to the Flight-Ciampino Airport ) were also organized. The social programme included a welcome cocktail at Palazzo Barberini and a Gala Dinner at the Grand Hotel.
EMC'98ROMA achieved a great success both for the overall attendance (about 500 delegates from 36 Countries) and for the quality of the scientific contents.
The Internatiuonal Steering Committee of EMC'98 ROMA gave life to a new event: "EMC Europe 2000" scheduled for 11-15 September 2000 at Bruges, Belgium.
13. The fourth international symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility in Japan ( EMC'99/TOKYO) Tokyo, May 17-21 1999 ------- S. Nitta
The venue: Surugadai Memorial Hall, Chuo University, Tokyo
The number of participants: 493 ( including twenty-three accompanying persons one hundred and twelve foreigners from twenty-one countries )
The number of papers presented: 1) General session:196 2) Invited Papers: 20
Total:216 ( including eighty-six papers by foreigners)
3) APTS:22 ( Advanced Products and Technology Session )
It is specially remarkable that the number of papers of PCB ( Printed Circuits Board ) was thirty-one, and the numbers of papers of " Transmission lines", "ESD + lighting" and " Biological effects" were fifteen, fourteen and thirteen, respectively. Exciting and fruitful discussions were watched at all session rooms.
Many people were interested in APTS including experiments and measurements demonstrations and eagerly discussed each subject, observing demonstrations. The IEEE events such as standards committee, workshop, BOD meeting and so on were held in parallel with technical sessions and many participants were enlightened.
THE book about " Information about Advanced Knowledge " was published and distributed to all participants.
Many people enjoyed two technical tours ( Mitsubishi Electric Co.Ltd. and historical Kamakura , and NTT and Metropolitan Tokyo )
14. 13th International Wroclaw Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Wroclaw, Poland, 25 28 1996 ------- H. Trzaska
The first Wroc³aw Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility was held in 1972, when there was no regular conference on that topic in Europe. Since 1976 this biennial gathering has been successful in attracting world-class personalities and leading global organizations. Among others, Professor F.L. Stumpers, Honorary President of URSI, has directed without interruption the Program Committee over the twenty years of its existence. The symposium has enjoyed the sponsorship and cooperation of the most prestigious global organizations such as the International Union of Radio Science - URSI, the International Telecommunication Union - ITU, the International Electrotechnical Commission - IEC, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - IEEE, to list only few of them. The year 1982 was peculiar: program, authors, papers and Proceedings were ready, but there were no participants. Because of the martialow status declared in Poland, the organizers decided not to gather participants. Over the years, the Wroclaw symposium earned recognition of the scientific and engineering world. In his review of URSI activities from 1922 until 1995, at the occasion of 75 anniversary of URSI, Dr. P. Bauer wrote in The Radio Science Bulletin (No. 277, June 1996, page 17):
Our Commission on Electromagnetic Noise and Interference deals, among others, with terrestrial and planetary noise of natural origin and man-made, the composite noise environment the effects of noise on system performance and the scientific basis of noise and interreference control. Ever since 1975, the Commission participates actively in the planning and organisation of the very successful series of international symposia on Electromagnetic Compatibility, which are held alternatively in Wroclaw and in Zurich. According to our Honorary President, Professor Stumpers: >EMC is really a multidimensional field of research and, in our highly technological civilization, an indispensable one<.
The history of the twenty four years during which the Wroclaw EMC symposium gathered every two years eminent scientists, engineers and administrators from around the world confirms that opinion.
As in previous years the Symposium was organized by the Association of Polish Electrical Engineers, the Institute of Telecommunications, and the Wroc³aw Technical University. It was co-sponsored by URSI and supported by other international organizations as well as by national associations of electrical and electronics engineers from 21 countries.
The Symposium Council was chaired by Prof. W. Majewski (Poland) with v-chairman Prof. A. Pi³atowicz (Poland), and the Scientific Program Committee by Prof. F.L.H.M. Stumpers (The Netherlands) with v-chairman R.G. Stru¿ak (Poland). The co-chairmen of the Symposium were Prof. D.J. Bem and Mr. J. Rutkowski, and the Organizing Committee was chaired by Mr. W. Moroñ. There were 298 participants from 31 countries. The most numerous groups were from Poland (140), Russian Federation (29), Germany (18), Japan (15), Italy (10), Hungary (8), France (7), Switzerland (7). Some people came from Canada, Egypt, Israel, Korea (Rep. of), Turkey. Proceedings containing 161 papers accepted for presentation, delivered by 317 authors and co-authors from 32 countries were available to all the participants at the opening the Symposium.
On the day before the Symposium three events took place:
On the day after the Symposium one event took place:
*) COST - European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research
The Symposium was opened by its chairman, Prof. D.J. Bem. PTT V-minister, Dr. M. Rusin greeted the audience on behalf of Symposium Patron.
Three plenary sessions were held on the first three days of the symposium. The following papers were presented:
-"EMC-Globalisation: The Role of Scientific Societies" by Dr. F. Mayer (France), representing IEEE-EMCS,
-"EMC of Printed Circuit Boards and Microelectronic Engineering Techniques" by Dr. W. John (Germany),
-"Key Issues in Spectrum Management" by Prof. R.G. Struzak (Poland),
-"Menace to Human Environment and Biological Effects of EM Radiation of Unspecified Frequency and Intensity Caused by Careless High Technology Implementations in the Near Future" by Prof. T. Yoshino (Japan).
Twenty five regular and nine poster sessions covered different fields of EMC.
Among regular sessions - the following invited sessions were organized:
-Terrestrial EM Noise, organized and chaired by Prof. M.Hayakawa (Japan); URSI Commission E sponsored session,
-Lightning, EMP and LEMP - I and II, organized and chaired by Prof. M. Ianoz (Switzerland); URSI Commission E sponsored session,
-EMC for PCB Design and Microelectronic Applications, organized and chaired by Dr. W. John (Germany),
-Electrobiology for Defeating Cancer and Other Diseases, co-organized by Prof. H. Kikuchi (Japan), and co-chaired by Prof. H. Kikuchi and Prof. S.F. Alfas (Denmark);
-EMC in Wireless Communication Systems, organized by Prof. W.C. Lee (USA), and chaired by Prof. K. Fujimoto (Japan),
-Signal Integrity, organized by Prof. I. Novak (Hungary),and chaired by Dr. F. Canavero (Italy),
-EMC Testing and Testing Requirements in View of the New European Standards Proposals, organized and chaired by Prof. A.S. Podgorski (Canada),
-Electromagnetic Compatibility in ISM Applications, organized and chairedby Prof. W.M. Van Loock (Belgium),
-EM Emissions Associated with Seismic Activity, organized and chaired by Prof. T. Yoshino (Japan); URSI Commission E sponsored session.
The titles of the other sessions were:
-Antennas and Propagation, EMC Aspects (chaired by Mr. K.A. Hughes - ITU, Switzerland);
-Antennas and Propagation, EMC Aspects (poster session);
-Biological Effects of EM Radiation (poster session);
-Computational Electromagnetics - I and II (chaired by Prof. A. Karwowski, Poland);
-Education in EMC (chaired by Prof. J.A. Catrysse, Belgium);
-EMC in PCB (chaired by Prof. S. Nitta, Japan);
-EMC in Power Engineering (chaired by Prof. A. Pi³atowicz, Poland);
-EMC in Wire Communication (chaired by Prof. G. Varju, Hungary);
-EMC Measurements and Instrumentation - I (chaired by Mr. M.C. Vrolijk, The Netherlands);
-EMC Measurements and Instrumentation - II (chaired by Dr. D. Hansen, Germany);
-EMC Measurements and Instrumentation (poster session);
-EMC Prediction, Analysis, Modelling (chaired by Prof. S.M. Radicella, Italy);
-EMC Prediction, Analysis, Modelling (poster session);
-EMI Sources and EMI Reduction Techniques (chaired by Prof. H. Trzaska, Poland);
-ESD, Lightning, EMP (chaired by Prof. V. Scuka, Sweden);
-ESD, Lightning, EMP (poster session);
-Grounding and Shielding (chaired by Dr. F.P. Dawalibi, Canada);
-Grounding and Shielding (poster session);
-Immunity (chaired by Prof. E. Habiger, Germany); Immunity (poster session);
-Natural and Man-Made EM Environment (poster session);
-Spectrum Management, Engineering, Sharing, Monitoring (chaired by Prof. R.G. Struzak, Poland);
-Spectrum Management (poster session).
The review of the content of papers offered is given in the overview presented by Prof. F.L. Stumpers.
Four workshops took place during the Symposium:
-Advantages of Using a Competent Body for CE-EURO-Certification, organized by EU Association of Component Bodies. Organizer and Moderator: Dr D. Hansen from EURO EMC SERVICE, Teltow, Germany,
-Surge Voltage Protection for Data and Telecom Systems, organized by Phoenix Contact, Blomberg, Germany. Speaker: R. Hausmann,
-Interoperability of National Spectrum Management Systems, organized by European Radiocommunications Office, Copenhagen, Denmark. Speaker: T. Cesky,
-Protection and Certification of Aircraft Avionic Systems from Lightning Indirect Effects, organized by Lightning Technologies Inc., Pittsfield, USA. Speaker: R. Kolodziejczyk.
Young Scientists Program was organized with the financial support of URSI. Support was offered to two young scientists (from Belarus and Russia).
The technical exhibition was held during the Symposium with the participation of 10 companies. The exhibition was well attended.
The literature exhibition was organized in which exhibited were the publications of international organizations such as International Union of Radio Science - URSI, International Telecommunication Union - Radiocommunication Sector and Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-R, ITU-T), European Telecommunication Standards Institute - ETSI, European Broadcasting Union - EBU, European Electrotechnical Standards Committee - CENELEC, and International Electrotechnical Committee - Special Committee on Radio Interference - CISPR and Technical Committee 77 "Electromagnetic Compatibility". Besides some books on EMC, spectrum management and electromagnetics, yearly editions such as ITEM, and some specialized periodicals as e.g. Microwave News were shown.
The exhibition, a unique initiative on such symposia, was well received and well attended.
A computer network with dedicated server was available to all participants to enable software presentations and in depth discussions. The network was connected to Internet. Free of charge service was offered.
Council and Program Committee Meeting
A Joint Meeting of the Symposium Council, the Scientific Program Committee, and the Organizing Committee, together with Session Chairmen was held on the last day. The meeting was co-chaired by Prof. A. Piatowicz v-chairman of the Symposium Council, and Prof. R.G. Struzak, v-chairman of the Scientific Program Committee. Prof. Stumpers, who did not come to the Symposium, wrote a letter to participants and those present at the meeting signed a greeting letter to him . During the meeting the present Symposium was evaluated and improvements and possible changes for the future were discussed. The current event was positively evaluated and it was stressed that the broad range of the Symposium topics, resulting from the accepted EMC definition, should be continued. The prevailing opinion was that such a strategy can lead to fruitful new ideas, and duplication of efforts can be avoided thanks to contacts and discussions among specialists involved in various fields of EMC. But also some people were of the opinion that each consecutive symposium should have limited topics. More scientific atmosphere of the Symposium in comparison with some other, more commercially oriented, events was praised. It was also emphasized that mixing of theoretical and engineering topics is very fruitful and should be retained. The positive influence of the interaction between those involved in theory and those involved in the engineering practice cannot be overestimated.
15. 14th International Wroclow Symposium on Electrromagnetic Compatibility ------- R.Z. Struzak
The first Wroclaw Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility was held in 1972, when there was no regular conference on that topic in Europe. Since 1976 this biennial gathering has been successfully attracting world-class personalities and leading global and regional organizations. As it may be seen, the year 1982 was a peculiar one: program, authors, papers and Proceedings were ready, but there were no participants. Because of the martial law status declared in Poland, the organizers decided not to gather the participants. The 1998 Symposium, as all the previous ones, was organized by the Association of Polish Electrical Engineers, the Institute of Telecommunications, and the Wroclaw University of Technology. It was co-sponsored by URSI and enjoyed cooperation of other international organizations as well as national associations of electrical and electronics engineers from 21 countries .
The following organizations supported the Symposium: National Radiocommunication Agency (Poland), Polish Telecommunications Co., Plus GSM - Digital Mobile Telecommunication Network (Poland), Polish Digital Telephony ERA GSM Ltd. The Symposium Council was chaired by Prof. W. Majewski (Poland) with v-chairmen Prof. A. Pilatowicz (Poland), and Dr M. Rusin (Poland). The Scientific Program Committee was chaired by Prof. R. G. Struzak (Poland) and Prof. F.L.H.M. Stumpers (The Netherlands) was Honorary Chairman. The co-chairmen of the Symposium were Prof. D.J. Bem and Mr. J. Rutkowski, and the Organizing Committee was chaired by Mr. W. Moron. There were 355 participants from 34 countries. The most numerous groups were from Poland (178), Germany (18), Russian Federation (17), USA (15), Japan (14), France (13), United Kingdom (12), Belarus (9), Italy (8), Ukraine (7). The Proceedings containing 143 papers accepted for presentation, delivered by 292 authors and co-authors from 32 countries were available to all the participants at the opening the Symposium. The Proceedings contain also materials of workshops which took place during the Symposium.
During the Symposium Working Group 1 "Spectrum Management/Utilisation and Wireless Telecommunication" of URSI commission E
conducted a special workshop on "Mathematical Methods in Frequency Planning". It was organized by J. Finnie (Radiocom Agency, UK), R.A.
Leese (University of Oxford, UK), and R.G. Struzak (Co-chair of URSI WGE1).
The workshop was generously supported by the United States Air Forces European Office of Aerospace Research and Development.
The Symposium was opened by its chairman, Prof. D.J. Bem. Then the Rector of the University of Technology greeted the audience, and PTT
V-minister, Dr. M. Rusin, had a speech on behalf of the Symposium Patron. Prof. Struzak, Program Committee Chairman, read out the letter to
participants from the absent Honorary Program Chairman, Prof. F.H.L. Stumpers.
Three plenary sessions were held. One session took place on every day of the symposium. The following papers were presented:
"EM Terrorism - A Real Danger" by R.L. Gardner, (V-chairman URSI Commission E),
"ETSI - Standards for the Global Marketplace - Radiocommunications" by K.H. Rosenbrock, (Director General of ETSI),
"World Radiocommunications Conference 1997 - Consequences for Europe" by Th. Boe (Director of European Radiocommunication Office),
"Power Quality" by G. Goldberg (Immediate past chairman of IEC - ACEC).
Twenty regular and ten poster sessions covered different fields of EMC.
Among regular sessions - the following invited sessions were organized:
Terrestrial Electromagnetic Environment, organized and chaired by Prof. M.Hayakawa (Japan);
URSI Commission E sponsored session,
Co existance of Radio Services after 2000; a "passive" view, organized and chaired by Dr T.A. Spoelstra (Netherlands); ESF CRAF
Factors and Methods in Radio Frequency Assignment, organized and chaired by Dr. J. Finnie (UK),
EM Emissions in High and Low Frequency Ranges Related to Earthquakes, organized and chaired by Prof. T. Yoshino (Japan),
Beverage - like Aerials and EMC, organized and chaired by Prof. H. Kikuchi (Japan); URSI Commission E sponsored session,
Architectural Shielding, organized and chaired by Prof. J. A. Catrysse (Belgium),
New Trends in Computer Support for Frequency Spectrum Management, organized and chaired by T. Cesky (Denmark),
Computational Electromagnetics in Wireless Personal Communications, organized and chaired by Prof. A. Karwowski (Poland),
EMC in Amateur Radio Service, organized by Prof. H. Trzaska (Poland) and chaired by C.M. Verholt (Denmark); IARU Region 1 EMC
WG sponsored session,
NATO Naval Approaches to EMC, organized by Capt. R. Azzarone (Italy),Capt. A. Simi and S. Beaton (NATO HQ), chaired by Capt. R.
Azzarone; NATO Special WG10 "EM Environment Effects" sponsored session.
The titles of the other sessions were:
Antennas and Propagation, EMC Aspects (poster session);
Biological Effects of EM Radiation (poster session);
EMC Related to PCB and IC (poster session);
EMC in Power Systems (chaired by G. Goldberg, Switzerland);
EMC in Telecommunication (poster session);
EMC Measurements and Instrumentation - I (chaired by Dr. D. Hansen, Germany);
EMC Measurements and Instrumentation - II (chaired by P. J. Kerry, UK);
EMC Measurements and Instrumentation (poster session);
EMC Prediction, Analysis, Modelling - I (chaired by Dr. J. Kelly, Ireland);
EMC Prediction, Analysis, Modelling - II (chaired by Prof. K. H. Gonschorek, Germany);
EMC Prediction, Analysis, Modelling (poster session);
EMI Sources and Coupling Path to Victims (chaired by B. Despres, France)
EMI Reduction Techniques (poster session);
EMI Reduction Techniques (chaired by G. M. Kunkel, USA);
ESD, Lightning, EMP (chaired by Prof. C. Mazzetti, Italy);
ESD, Lightning, EMP (poster session);
Immunity (chaired by Prof. J. Kolodziejski, Poland);
Natural and Man-Made EM Environment (poster session);
Spectrum Management, Engineering, Sharing and Monitoring (chaired by R.J. Mayher, USA);
Spectrum Management (poster session).
Six workshops took place during the Symposium:
European Union EMC Directive in Practice. Organized by M.C. Vrolijk, N.V Philips, Netherlands.
EMC Quo Vadis - What Standards Will We Need in the Future. Organizers: P. J. Kerry, President of IEC - CISPR, (UK); B. T. Szentkuti, Chairman of IEC - TC77 EMC, (Switzerland).
Transient Immunity Tests on Different Ports, Flicker and Harmonics Measurements on Power Line Port. Organizer: M. Lutz, EMC PARTNER AG, (Switzerland).
EMC From Hewlett Packard. Organizer: Hewlett Packard (UK).
New Era of Communications Technologies; EMC Aspects. Organizer: H. G. Kimball, Immediate Past Chairman of ITU SG7 "Scientific Services", (USA).
Penetration of EM Field Trough Shielding Materials and Components. Organizer: G. M. Kunkel, SPIRA Manufacturing Corp., (USA).
Young Scientists Program was organized with the financial support of URSI. The support was offered to seven young scientists (from Belarus, Brasil, China, Georgia, Russia - 2 persons, and Turkey).
The technical exhibition was held during the Symposium with the participation of 15 companies.. The exhibition was well attended.
The literature exhibition was organized in which exhibited were the publications of international organizations such as International Union of Radio Science - URSI, International Telecommunication Union - Radiocommunication Sector and Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-R, ITU-T), European Telecommunication Standards Institute - ETSI, European Broadcasting Union - EBU, European Electrotechnical Standards Committee - CENELEC, and International Electrotechnical Committee: Special Committee on Radio Interference - CISPR, and Technical Committee 77 "Electromagnetic Compatibility". Besides some books on EMC, spectrum management and electromagnetics, annual editions such as ITEM, and some specialized periodicals e.g. Microwave News, were shown. The exhibition, a useful initiative on such symposia, was well received and well attended.
The computer network with direct connection to Internet was available, free of charge, to all participants to enable software presentations, and in depth discussions.
Council and Program Committee Meeting
A Joint Meeting of the Symposium Council, the Scientific Program Committee, and the Organizing Committee, together with Session Chairmenwas held on the last day. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr M. Rusin, v-chairman of the Symposium Council, and Prof. R.G. Struzak, chairman of the Scientific Program Committee.
During the meeting the present Symposium was evaluated, improvements and possible changes for the future were discussed. The current event was positively evaluated, and it was stressed that the broad range of the Symposium topics should be continued. The prevailing opinion was that such a strategy can lead to fruitful new ideas, and duplication of efforts can be avoided thanks to contacts anddiscussions among specialists involved in various fields of EMC. More scientific atmosphere of this Symposium in comparison to some other more commercially oriented events, was praised. It was also emphasized that mixing of theoretical and engineering topics is very fruitful and should be retained. The positive influence of the interaction between those involved in theory, and those involved in the engineering practice, cannot be overestimated.
The 15th Wroclaw Symposium on EMC is planned for year 2000. The exact date will be set down at a later date. For the details please refer later to: www.emc.wroc.pl. In the case of questions, send e-mail to: email@example.com.
Copies of the Symposium Proceedings (786 pages) are available from:
51-645 Wroclaw 12, Poland
fax: +4871-372-8878, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
(mail address): Institute of Telecom.
ul. Swojczycka 3851-501 Wroclaw, Poland
16. Technical Activities in Electro Static Discharges (ESD) 1996 1998 ------- R. De Leo
The ESD Association, in cooperation with the IEEE, organises every year the International EOS/ESD Symposium and exhibition on Electrostatic Discharges and Electrical Overstress.
The several presented papers, together with the tutorials and workshops, allows to have a large view on standards, coupling mechanisms, and suppression techniques against ESD.
In session D six papers were presented on several ESD topics, such us
In session XVI, ESD/Lightning/EMP, a paper related to the ESD source model was presented (Fujiwara).
In session EA, Electromagnetic Compatibility and EM Pollution, a paper on the ESD coupling into linear systems was presented (Cerri et al.)
In session N, Shielding/ESD, two paper were presented:
In session J, Numerical modelling, a paper was presented on the penetration of ESD into shielded enclosures (Cerri, et al.).
In session EMC/EMP a paper on the field radiated by an ESD suppressor was presented (Cerri et al.).
In session EMC, a paper on the effects produced by the insertion of ESD suppression devices was presented (De Leo et al.).
In session TH2B, Transients, a system for the validation of the ESD pulse was presented (Hendrikx et al.) together with another paper describing the new ANSI ESD standard (Maas et al.).
In session 6D, EMC Topics, a paper on the effect of lead length on the response of ESD suppressor devices will be presented (Fallah et al.).
In the poster session EP, Electromagnetic noise and interference, a paper on the computer simulation of hand/metal discharge will be presented (Jobava et al.).
In session EA, Electromagnetic Compatibility and EM Pollution, a paper on the reduction of the field radiated by an Esd using ferrite materials will be presented (Fujiwara et al.), and the poster session EB a paper on the transient electrodinamics of an ESD from object will be resented (Shubitidze et al.)
17. 1996 Comference on Environmental Electromagnetics (CEEM) Xien ------- Y. Gao
Some Topics Related to EMC Measurements at CEEM 1996, Xien
1. Measurement of Electromagnetic Environment in Office from 1 to 3 GHz -------By Yasuhisa KITANI et.al.
The Authors measured the EM Environment in an office, a computer room & an outdoor, focusing on the 1-3 GHz band, and obtained amplitude probability distribution of the field strength. From these results , shield attenuation of the building was estimated 13-15 dB in this frequency band.
2. Measuring of Radiated Power from Ratio Equipment Using a Reverberating Chamber -------------By Akira SUZUKI et.al.
The Authors have been performing experiments with the Reverberating chamber method to study optimal methods for rotating Stirrers, techniques for averaging obtained data, linearity of results & the influence of metal walls. Results indicate that using a reverberating chamber is a promising method for measuring the average radiated power of radio equipment having a built-in antenna.
3. The Characteristics of Scattering Wave in Semi-Anechoic Chamber -----------By ZUO Peng et.al.
A systematic measurement was done in a semi-anechoic chamber. The amplitude characteristic & polarization characteristics of scattering wave & the normalized site attenuation characteristics & the maximum test space of the semi-anechoic chamber were measured! Some useful data & information were provided.
From the analysis result based on this model, the authors clarify the cause of poor reproducibility of noise measurements on frequency domain by analyzing the measuring data in consideration of the phases’ difference across the frequency components included in noise.
5. Measurement of Electromagnetic Noises Accompanying Strong Earthquake in MF & HF Bands ----------By Y.H. Ohtsuki et.al.
The authors have organized a group with amateur volunteers for observations of electromagnetic waves (MF & HF bands) which is radiated before & when earthquakes occurred. This observation system is simple & it is easy for amateur people to detect. Furthermore, the authors compared the monthly distribution of the electromagnetic noises with that of ball lightning phenomena.
6."Theory and Experiment for Passive Imaging of Electromagnetic Sources"---By Toru UNO et.al.
This paper implements the frequency domain inverse -procedure for searching the electromagnetic radiation sources located in an arbitrary region.The analysis is a full-wave & the solution is mathematically exact. The validity of the imaging method is confirmed by an experiment.
7."Forecast Analysis of Electromagnetic Radiation of Chinese---High Speed Railway"---By ZHANG Chen et.al.
This paper carried out forecast analysis on Electromagnetic Radiation of “Beijing ---Shanghai high speed electrified railway” which will be built in near future. Some feasible methods for reducing electromagnetic radiation were put forward in this work according to research achievements at home and abroad.